Index to Legal Periodical Index
1981 - present

Silver Platter

Search Features Chart

Didn't Find
Enough
Index to Search Examples
And | Or | Author | Document Type
Truncate | Word Proximity | Words in Article Title | Journal Title

To limit to Peer Reviewed Articles

Save money - e-mail your Search Results

Found too
Much

Search Basics Boolean Logic


AND

children and violence and television
Explanation

OR

Use similar terms - link them with OR
(children or child) and (violence or aggression) and television
Explanation
TRUNCATION

Find the ROOT of a word - end it with *
child* and (violence or aggression) and (television or tv)

Explanation
Find More :
USE FEWER CONCEPTS

Decreasing the number of concepts will increase the number of articles
child* and (violen* or aggress*) and (television or tv)

Explanation
Find Less:
USE MORE CONCEPTS

Increasing the number of concepts will decrease the number of articles
child* and (violen* or aggress*) and (television or tv) and parent*

Explanation
Proximity
Searching

Specify how close the search terms should be from one another.
ADJ find words NEXT to each other in the specified order

WITH finds words in the same FIELD - (no order)

NEAR finds words in the same SENTENCE - (no order) near# (1-50) specifies how many intervening word there may be between the terms (no order).

wom?n near law with (society or culture)

wom?n near50 law with (culture or society)

legislative adj action

Explanation


Limit Search
to words in ARTICLE TITLE

(child* and violence and (television or tv)) in ti

Note that the parenthesis match, i.e. there are as many open as closed parenthesis.
If you use parenthesis they must match
.

Explanation


Limit Search to a
SPECIFIC JOURNAL

child* and (violence or aggression) and (television or tv)
and (Kansas-Journal-of-Law-and-Public-Policy) in jn
Explanation
Limit Search
to SPECIFIC AUTHOR
child* and violence and (television or tv) and john wright in au

Note. Authors' names may be written:
lastname firstname or firstname lastname

Explanation
Limit Search
to Document Type
child* and violence and (television or tv) and dt=feature-article

dt=books
dt=book-review
dt=case
dt=feature-article
dt=symposium

Explanation
Limit Search to Peer-Reviewed
Records


child* and violence and (television or tv) and y in pei

...












Criminal Justice Abstracts - Didn't Find Enough Articles - Need More. Need Less

And | Concepts |

You may have selected a topic about which little has been written.
Reduce the number of concepts. Instead of writing about how violence on television affects children - write about how violence in any form affects children: violence and children.


Or

Try to add additional but similar terms. Children might also include adolescent, youngster, young adult and child. Add these terms to your search using Or.

Truncate

Truncation, in principle, is similar to using OR. It finds similar terms by using the root of a word. In our example, Child is the root of children - childs - childhood - childlike. By adding the truncation symbol * immediately after the root - child = child*, the search will find all words which begin child. Word Proximity

If you used NEAR (terms must be found in the same sentence) to require that your search words or concepts be close to one another. Try searching for them further apart by using WITH (words must be in the same field). This may retrieve some articles which are not relevant to your topics but it will also likely retrieve additional useful articles.

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Criminal Justice Abstracts - Found too Many Articles - Need Less. Need More

And | Concepts |

You may have selected a topic about which a great deal has been written. Examine your subject and consider a narrower topic.

Add an additional concept. Instead of writing about how violence on television affects children - write about the role of the parent in the matter of television violence and its effect, if any, on children:

violence and children and television and parent.

Or

Examine the terms in the OR statement. Remove those which are less directly related to your subject. While the concept of Children might include adolescent, youngster, young adult and child. You might remove the terms adolescents or young adults, which imply older children.

Truncate

Truncation, in principle, is similar to using OR. However, there may be words with the same root which are not as related to a topic as we would like. Don't truncate. Spell out the terms needed and use Or.

Word Proximity

If you used WITH (words must be in the same field) to require that your search words or concepts be further from one another, try searching for them nearer together by using NEAR (terms must be found in the same sentence).

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Criminal Justice Abstracts - Using AND

children and violence and television


The command AND requires that the words on either side of it be somewhere in any articles retrieved; but, the words need not be close to each other nor do they have to be discuss the relationship between them.

If you find that the articles retrieved are not related to your topics because your concepts are discussed in different parts of the article try using Word Proximity.

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Criminal Justice Abstracts - FINDING MORE USING OR

OR allows the addition of similar words (synonyms).
This increases the change of finding additional articles.

(children or child) and (violence or aggression) and television

Step 1 - For each word in the search statement list additional words with the same or similar meanings.

a - Child, childhood, adolescent - etc. are similar in meaning to our original word children
b - Repeat this process for each word in the original search statement.
Step 2 - Construct a new search using "OR" (children or adolescent) and (violence or aggression) and (television or tv)
.

Rule 1. Words connected with OR must be enclosed in (parenthesis) as illustrated.

Rule 2. OR requires only one term to be present - more than one may be present but only one is required.

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Criminal Justice Abstracts - FINDING MORE USING TRUNCATION.

child* and violence and television

Instead of searching for children - search for child *. This tells the computer to find ALL words which start with the letters immediately preceeding the * no matter how long they are.

Note that this search is a work-saving version of:

child or childs or childhood or children or childrens

Either search will find the related words - child, children, childs, childhood and will likely increase the number of records found.

Some cautions and some additional information concerning TRUNCATION.

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Criminal Justice Abstracts - Limit the search to the title.

(child* and violence and (television or tv)) in ti

Specifying a TITLE search instructs the computer to search for the key words or phrases only in the TITLE FIELD. The rationale for such a search is that if the words or concepts are found in the title, it is more likely the book or article will be directly related to the subject being searched

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Criminal Justice Abstracts - Find articles by a specific author.

Huston Aletha in au and child* and violence and (television or tv)

Note. Authors can be written lastname firstname, or firstname lastname
(a separating comma is optional)

Authors will frequently write more than one article on a subject. If you find an author who has written an article you particularly like, search for additional articles by that author. They may be related to your topic.

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Criminal Justice Abstracts - Find articles from a specific journal or magazine.

SO(CQ Researcher) and child* and violence and (television or tv)

Assignments are frequently constructed suggesting that certain periodicals, journals or magazines would be more helpful than others. And in your studies you may find particular periodicals more useful than others. This search demonstrates how you can limit a search to a specific periodical, journal or magazine title.

Because you are limiting to only one title using this method you may find you have to reduce the number of concepts or increase the use of OR.

A Journal Title Search is an example of FIELD SEARCHING.

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Criminal Justice Abstracts - Word Proximity

Designate how close to each other you want your concepts.

WITH finds words in the same FIELD.
NEAR finds words in the same SENTENCE

child* near television with (violence or aggression)

The rationale for requiring words to be close to one another is that there is more likely to be a discussion of the relationship between those words than if they were far apart.

If the word television is found only in the first paragraph of a 10 page article and the word violence is only in the last paragraph of this article it is unlikely that there will be any discussion of violence. By requiring these two words to be closer to each other television near violence (either word may come first) there is a much, much better chance of there being a discussion of television violence.

Decreasing the distance between words will decrease the number of articles found.
Increasing the distance between words will increase the number of articles found.

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Criminal Justice Abstracts - Limit to only Periodical Articles or Documents.

For any number of reasons it may be necessary to limit a search to a particular type of publication. Your professor may require that you find only periodical information. To avoid the frustration of finding documents you wish were articles use the following feature:

a. The example below will retrieve only periodical articles.
television and children and violence and ej in fi

b. The example below will retrieve only Criminal Justice Abstracts Documents.

television and children and violence and ed in fi

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Criminal Justice Abstracts - Limit to Articles with Special Features.

Criminal Justice Abstracts includes in its description of articles special descriptions to alert readers whether the article is a research article, a classroom guide, or heavy with statistics.

FORM: dtc=###

List of selected features:

  • research articles/documents: dtc=143
  • classroom guides: dtc=052
  • numCriminal Justice Abstractsal or statistical data: dtc=110
  • tests/questionaires: dtc=160

children and television and violence and dtc=143

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Criminal Justice Abstracts - Save Money - E-mail Search Results.

St. John's University does not charge for access to information - it only charges for printing. If you e-mail your search results you can print them at home on your printer for a fraction of the cost.

An additional advantage is that you now have an electronic copy of your search results making it possible to "cut-and-paste" quotations directly into your paper. You can also "cut-and-paste" the citation information for accurate citations and work cited lists.

Conduct a search as usual. Searches produce a Results List.

e-mailing can be accomplished from:

The default for sending articles is plain text. If you wish articles sent in html format it is necessary to make that adjustment in the PREFERENCES box. NOTE! Not all mail boxes can receive html documents. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT YOU ACCEPT THE DEFAULT SETTING WHICH IS ASCII TEXT.

TO E-MAIL:

Note the box marked E-MAIL at the top of either the RESULTS LIST or the MARKED LIST page.



Click on the E-MAIL box. Fill in the information as requested.

Enter an address and optional subject message and click on the box labeled MAIL.

It may take as much as 15 minutes (and sometimes more) before the articles are sent to your e-mail address. You will receive one e-mail which will contain all the articles you have requested.

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Truncation & Wildcard Symbols

The dangers of truncation.
Take the word cat. Truncating cat* to find cats would also get catfood, caterpillar, catalog -- a -- CATASTROPHE.

The solution is to use the ? the Wildcard symbol.

WILDCARD

Using cat? limits the truncation to one letter - in this case cats.

The ? symbol can also be used internally: - wom? n finds woman and women.

? can be used in multiples. Take baby - - bab??? - finds baby, babs, babes and babies

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This page is maintained by P. Charles Livermore

Reference Librarian, St. John's University, New York.
8000 Utopia Parkway
Jamaica, NY 11439
718 990 5330
It was last updated on September 28, 2000.
Suggestions and corrections are welcome and should be sent to him.